Candidiasis or thrush is a fungal infection (mycosis) of any of the Candida species, of which Candida albicans is the most common. Superficial infections of skin and mucosal membranes by Candida causing local inflammation and discomfort are however common in many human populations. Commonly referred to as a yeast infection, it is also technically known as candidosis, moniliasis, and oidiomycosis.
Candida species are frequently part of the human body's normal oral and intestinal flora. Treatment with antibiotics can lead to eliminating the yeast's natural competitors for resources, and increase the severity of the condition.
In clinical settings, candidiasis is commonly treated with antimycotics—the antifungal drugs commonly used to treat candidiasis are topical clotrimazole, topical nystatin, fluconazole, and topical ketoconazole.
For example, a one-time dose of fluconazole (as Diflucan 150-mg tablet taken orally) has been reported as being 90% effective in treating a vaginal yeast infection. (Care should be taken by people who have allergic reactions to azole group of medicines. And this medicine has different levels of contraditory reactions with other medicines as well. ) This dose is only effective for vaginal yeast infections, and other types of yeast infections may require different treatments. In severe infections (generally in hospitalized patients), amphotericin B, caspofungin, or voriconazole may be used. Local treatment may include vaginal suppositories or medicated douches. Gentian violet can be used for breastfeeding thrush, but when used in large quantities it can cause mouth and throat ulcerations in nursing babies, and has been linked to mouth cancer in humans and to cancer in the digestive tract of other animals.
C. albicans can develop resistance to antimycotic drugs, such as fluconazole, one of the drugs that is often used to treat candidiasis. Recurring infections may be treatable with other anti-fungal drugs, but resistance to these alternative agents may also develop